Urinary Tract Infections (UTI)

The purpose of the urinary tract is to generate and store urine. One of the body's waste products is urine. The kidneys create urine, which then moves down the ureters and into the bladder. The urethra, a tube connecting the bladder to the skin, is used to urinate in order to empty the bladder of pee. In a male, the urethra's opening is at the tip of the penis, while in a woman; it is located above the vaginal opening.

The kidneys regulate the amounts of numerous different substances in the body, including calcium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, and a variety of other substances, as well as the acidity of the blood. The kidneys can also produce certain hormones. These hormones assist the development of red blood cells, maintain blood pressure and aid to grow bones.

Regular urine has a one-way flow and no germ, which helps individuals stay healthy. Nevertheless, bacteria may enter the bladder through the urethra and move into the urine.


  • There is pain, burning, or stinging sensation during urinating
  • More intense or persistent need to urinate (though only a very small amount of pee may be passed)
  • Fever
  • Needing to use the restroom a lot
  • Experiencing abdominal pain near the bladder (generally below the belly button)
  • Bad odor in pee and may be hazy or include blood

Visit a doctor right away if you get any UTI symptoms. If you begin treatment as soon as possible, you'll feel better. Make a call to your doctor's office or clinic. If you can't reach your doctor, you can visit an urgent care centre or a hospital emergency room. The most crucial thing is to act as soon as possible.


Your skin, as well as the area around your vagina and rectum, is covered in a lot of germs. Urine could contain bacteria that entered the bladder through the urethra. They might even reach the kidney and prostate. Just as some people are more prone to colds, other people are more prone to UTIs. Women are more likely than males to acquire a UTI because their urethras are shorter than men's, which means that bacteria must travel a shorter distance to reach the bladder.

Factors leading to UTI

Body Factors:After menopause, a woman's vaginal lining changes and she no longer benefits from estrogen's anti-UTI properties. Some women have urinary pathways that are more conducive to bacterial adhesion and are genetically prone to UTIs. Post intercourse UTI is most common in female.

Birth Control:When compared to women who use other birth control methods, diaphragm users have been reported to have a greater risk of UTIs. It is also known that using condoms with spermicidal foam increases the risk of UTIs in women.

Abnormal Anatomy: If urinary system is atypical or has recently received a device (such as a catheter tube to drain fluid from the bladder), you are more likely to get a UTI. You will also be more likely to get a UTI if you are unable to urinate normally due to an obstruction of some kind Eg- prostate kidney stones. UTIs can also be caused by urogenital anatomy problems. Although adults can still have these defects, children are frequently the first to show them. There may be blockages, such as an enlarged prostate that prevent drainage of urine from bladder completely or anatomical abnormalities such as outpouchings called diverticula which causes high residual urine in bladder.

Immune System: People who suffer from conditions like diabetes (high blood sugar) are more likely to develop UTIs because their bodies are less able to effectively fight off infection.


You can take the following actions to prevent UTIs:
  • Maintain a good hygiene
  • UTIs are more likely to occur in women who use specific birth control techniques, such as spermicidal foam and diaphragms. Consult your doctor about different birth control options
  • To stay hydrated, consume a lot of liquids (around 2 L each day)
  • Tablets containing cranberries may help prevent UTIs
  • If you feel your urine stream/flow is slow or feel that there is still some urine left in bladder then consult a doctor
  • Doctor
    Dr. Lok Prakash Choudhary
    Senior Consultant
    Department of Urology & Renal Transplant
    Book an Appointment